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TEA FARMİNG AND TYPES

TEA FARMİNG AND TYPES

BOTANICAL CONSTITUTION FOR TEA PLANT
Tea is a food and beverage substance that is obtained by processing certain kinds of fresh shoots and has the most important place in daily life. The tea plant is based on the Camellia family of the Theaceae family of the Parietales set from the free crown-leaf subclass of the two-spindle class of the lower part of the closed seeds of the flowering plants.
I am a green one. If cultural measures (maintenance, pruning) are not applied, a tree view can be obtained. Tea plant is a perennial plant.
Economic efficiency is 50 years, 100 years can live. In 1881, the botanist named Ogust Kunntz named Camellia sinensis, and by the letter (L) (OK) in parentheses, it is indicated that this name belongs to Linaus and O. Kuntze.

 
Part Flowering plants Phanerogama to
Under Part Closed seedlingsr Angiosperms to
Class Dykes Dicotyledoneae
Sub class Free crown leaves Choripetales
Team   Parietales
Familya teas Theacea
Kind   Camellia
C. Sinensis 
C. taliensis
C. irirawadiensis 

Camellia Sinensis has three varieties: Camellia Sinensis Var. Sinensis (Chinese Tea), Camellia Sinensis Var. Assamica (Assam Stream), Camellia Sinensis Var. Cembodiensis (Camphor tea)

Chinese Tea
It is small matt and hard leaves.
The amount of tannin and caffeine in the preparation is less than the value of Assam tea and others.
Dem color is light,
Leaf yield is low, very resistant to cold.

 

 

 


 

Assam Stream
The leaf is large, bright, soft and dull.
The color of aromatic compounds and caffeine in the composition is richer than that of Chinese fineside.
Leaf yield is not very resistant to colds and adverse conditions with excess.


 

VEGETABLE PROPERTIES
When a tea plant with a centuries-old lifespan is left to grow in the forest, a tree looks like a tree. Apparently, the plant structure, which has a scattered appearance, is in a single body, as well as in very somber ones. Every dem of the grass is a green plant. It has summer and winter foliage. In places where there is adequate temperature and nematode, for example, in South India, Sri Lanka, Cava, Sumatra and Kenya, year-round shoot formation continues. In some cool regions of South Africa, where there is a difference of temperature and humidity between the seasons of the year, for example in North and North East India, North East China and Japan, our neighbors Georgia and Iran are scattered on Caspian coasts and tea plants in our country . In places that are not suitable for year-long shoot formation, shoot formation stops during cold season, there is no growth on leaves and buds. In other words, the tea plant enters the period of dormancy during the cold periods. In the exile period, the abundance of the rain and the temperature must be enough for the shoots to be able to form continuously on the tea plant. Otherwise, during the period of shoots, the plant does not give the expected shoot, the development is considerably retarded and therefore the amount of the product is considerably reduced.
A leaf with two leaves freshly cut from the ends of the shoots in the tea plant is used in the production of qualified tea.
As a general rule, it is recommended and recommended to use two leaves and a bud cut from the shoot tip for tea production. For this reason, the amount of polyphenol decreases as the young leaves go from the young leaves to the elderly, that is, the characteristic materials affecting the quality of the leaves are gathered in young leaves and buds.
Generally speaking, the first condition of producing quality and successful tea is good. There is no possibility of bringing a quality that does not exist in the market. It is necessary to evaluate the production steps of tea together with raw material for the whole.

sliding tea sprouts
ROOT
It has strong side roots coming out of a main root and fringe roots close to the surface of the earth on these side roots. In some varieties, side roots can go to soil depths like pile roots. The weight of the root that feeds the plant is 5% of the total root weight. 1-2 mm thick thick roots contain plenty of starch in the cells. The pruned plant allows it to develop thanks to this stored nutrient.
LEAF
Each green leaf with a short stem is egg-shaped and shaped like an egg. The edges of mature leaves are more or less teeth. The tile is 3-35 cm long depending on the type. The leaves on the shoots formed after the first phase of development and after pruning become larger. The surface of the tea leaf forms a color in different tones ranging from flat to bumpy blunt or pointed (beaked) yellow to green to dark green. The texture of the old leaves gives a sense of leather, the upper surfaces are bright and dark green.

EXILE
Exiles consist of wood eyes in the seats of ripe leaves. The leaves of the leaves on the upper parts of the branches forming the tea cup are superior to the shoot eyes below. However, with the development of the above sprouting, the growth superiority is immediately passed to the bud growing in the lower leaf seat. Leaves are seen in different shapes on a tea plant shoot. These leaves are named separately. A growing exile is called:
Tomurcuk (Floveri-piko),
First Leaf (Oranj - Piko)
Second Leaf (Piko)
Third-Fourth Leaf (Sukong)
Fifth-Sixth Leaf (Kon)

Fresh tea stick

 

Inactive period in winter

 

Tea leaves from the rest period

 

Developing tea slugs

 

Tea pickled for harvest
But in the pruned and tipped quarries, the developmental advantage is not single-spirited, but allows many buds to become active on the trunk and branches. In general, the shoot eyes under each sprouted shoot become active. In the studies done, it is within 42 days after reaching to the collecting maturity of the bud growing in the leaf seat (2.5-3.5 sprouts) that the rainfall is enough in the season that the upper sprouts are torn off. Growth in the first 28 days is very slow. The rate of growth is on the 28th day until the 35th day and is the maximum from the 35th day until the 45th day. The tip of the shoot is brown, mostly down to the fourth and fifth leaf. The green shoots show an obvious rest period during their growth regardless of the environment and climatic conditions. On the top of the slip entering the resting cycle, a bud of about 5mm in length is formed, which is as long and fuller as the bud on the top of the normal growing shoot. This is called Banjihi resting bud.

Development of buds from resting period
It is wrapped around two or three rows of leaflets. At the end of the rest cycle, the leaf on the outer side is opened first when this bud is opened, and then this small leaf, which resembles a crested blossom ear, is called Katafil. It occurs more than once. Following this, the second outer leaf in the bud is opened to form a second leaf that does not resemble the first, and this leaf has no teeth on its edges. This leaf is called Janam-Fish leaf. This leaf is sometimes called the fertile leaf. After that, the bud starts normal development and forms normal leaves in the bud.
Subject to climate and maintenance conditions, five normal leaves are formed and the plant enters the resting cycle again and the banji is formed.
FLOWER
In the beginning of August in our country, the buds of fully formed leaves start to shoot on the tip of a short stalk. At the end of August or the beginning of September, this bud expands and the stalk opens wide and white and flashy flowers appear. A fully formed flower has 5-7 pieces of pot leaves and 5-7 pieces of crown leaf. It is a helix of flower. Male organs are 5 or more. Female organs are one and form a three-part table. After the petals are poured, it is always possible to see the downward foliage crested at the end of the flower stalk. They start to swell when you enter the stomach and get a bright green color in September. Fruits that have begun to mature in October have a dirty green or reddish color, they are split from their ends and the seeds are removed.
Yeni çıkmış çiçek tomurcukları

 

FRUIT
Fruits are three-eyed and thick-walled, with 3-6 seeds in the fruit.
Normally, when three seeds need to be formed, the seed parts are reduced by the reason that the parts in the ovary become sinking.
Sometimes they are found in flat seeds, one side of each other and the other side. Once the immature fruit has matured green, the fruit is normally 12mm in diameter in the diameter of the brown hazelnut.
The seeds contain about 20-30 percent fat in this oil, which contains saponin.
CLIMATE
The tea plant does not like the cold wind and the unpleasant wind. Places where temperatures fall below zero and rise above 40 degrees and below the annual average of 14 degrees are not suitable for tea farming. Tea is a plant that requires abundant rainfall, and it should be over 1200 mm in rainfall during the development period. It is desirable that the snow be slow and continuous.
It is important for the tea plant in the humidity like abundant rain. There is a high need for nourishment in order to protect the freshness and blindness of the plant. Moisture also plays a role in the formation of quality as well as encourages growth. The annual relative humidity is required to be above 70%.
SOIL STRUCTURE
Tea plant can grow in acid-reacted (pH 5.5-6) ​​soil with different structure from sand to chive. It grows well in deep soil with good soil and plant nutrients. It does not grow in places with heavy soil, clayey, impermeable water.
DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT
The tea plantations of our country were established with seeds brought from Georgia after 1924. The tea plant is subjected to external fertilization due to its genetic structure, resulting in continuous opening in the genotype.
The tea varieties in the Georgia region are chinese * Hind hybrid (Camellia sinensis * Camellia assamica), mainly chinese varieties, which have been open for many years since they have been showing a variety of oriental tea varieties (Özbek et al., 1961 Çelebioğlu and Sonmez, 1973 Ayfer and 1982) Our tea cultures are made up of a large number of species with significant differences in terms of characteristics such as morphology, quality, vegetative, generative and ecological conformity, with Chinese varieties prevailing. Numerous new types have emerged from the ongoing hybridization. It is natural that new types will emerge in this way if the production is continued. Most of the new types that are formed as a result of this hybridization will have low quality and yield values. (Tea Plantation Development and Rehabilitation Project, 1976) The tea plant is a long-lived plant and has been living for several centuries. Cultured tea plants are generally considered to live for 100 years. The tea plant starts from 4 years old. Depending on the conditions, the amount of product reaches the highest level after 10-15 years. The economic yield of tea plants is generally considered to be 50 years. The economic life span of our tea gardens, which started to be planted in 1938 with grains grown from seeds and seeds, is almost full. This old and declining tea garden needs to be renovated. (Kacar, 1987) Generally speaking, all tea gardens in our country have been planted with seeds, ie, in a generic way. Tea plants can be produced with seeds and also with vegetative methods. Currently, most of the methods used in tea growing countries are steel, dipping, and overfilling. With the dipping method, the number of plants to be produced in the main plant is very small. Since the tea plant shows foreign fertilization physiologically, there is no standard product standard because the gardens planted with seeds have different types and characteristics of tea plantations. For example, in tea horticulture, tea hobs come to the harvesting stage of the shoots at different times, causing many difficulties to the producer due to harvesting. At the same time, after waiting for the quarry at the farmers' teahouses at the latest, it tends to collect the product, and therefore a drop in product quality is seen as a result of exile and cartilaginous shoots. At the same time, the implementation of cultural measures to be implemented in the implementation of the manufacturer has caused great difficulties. In modern agriculture, product standards in terms of quality and quantity are important. Therefore, this phenomenon must be targeted in all agricultural products.
In order to achieve this goal in tea farming, it is first necessary to catch a homogeneous product norm in tea plantation areas. At the beginning of the works to be done for this purpose, we should go to the way of improvement of our existing tea fields. For this purpose, yield and quality have been reduced from the breeding gardens that have been prepared from these types by selecting the types that have adapted to the regional ecological conditions and which have superior characteristics in terms of yield and quality and which do not change these characteristics and filled the economical efficiency age (primarily tea- With the renewal of the tea fields, both the quality and the efficiency will be improved and a standard product standard will be obtained. With this application, both the future of our tea will be guaranteed and a quality will be able to compete comfortably in world markets. It is certain that the first condition of quality and successful tea production is good. There is no opportunity to produce a quality that does not exist in the country. It is necessary to evaluate the production stages of the tea together with the raw material as a whole. (Van, 1985)
For this purpose, in the tea research institute in 1967-1971, we started to work on the clonal selection of our existing tea plantation areas in the region under the name of the tea cultivation improvement and improvement project. By the end of 1973, 7517 tea cups were selected on the tea plantations. Of these, 3560 adedi was admired and brought to the Institute. These types of steel troughs, rooting and development cases were observed to be selected. As a result, 1086 types of control ploys were found that gave good results and others were eliminated. In the following years, 64 types with the best results from 1086 types were selected and others were untested. In 1977, 7 types were selected from the 64 types that completed the final selection phase in terms of yield and quality. Breeding gardens were formed and steel was taken from these gardens for seedling production. and stood in their coats.
These types are; Derepazarı-7, Sunday-20, Tuğlalı-10, Muradiye-10, Gündoğdu-3, Kömürcüler-1, Fener-3
Derepazarı-7 Clone
The leaves are long elliptical and the beak on the end of the leaf is indistinct. The veins of the leaves are noticeably swollen. The leaf is lightly greens. The bark and the first leaf are covered with six hairs. The intervals between the knuckles are more than others. The branches are sparse and brittle and can break easily.
Rize was found in the Derepazarı hollow village, and the elevation of the region was 300 m. In 1967, the steels taken from the rootstock were planted on the experimental plots in the Tea Institute. It was decided in 1977 that this clone had superior quality and quantity.
This clone, which resembles assamica as a phenotype, is cold in the other 7 clones and is least resistant to diseases. According to other clones, the leaf area is the largest. The leaves are slightly hanging against the dala. The branching characteristic is weak and there is not a wide harvesting table.

Shaft Diameter 3,26mm 1. Cover Area 22,8cm2
Shoot Boys 22cm 2. Cover Area 30,3cm2

 

Shoot Diameter
2.95mm 1.Background 18.2cm2
Shoot Length 20cm 2.Portable Area 22.8cm2 Lantern-3 Clone
This clone was found in the Rize-Merkez Fener district. The elevation of the observed region is 20 m.
This clone, which was discovered in 1963, was decided to have superior quality and quantity after decades of research. It is a hybrid in which the characteristics of Sinensis dominate.
It is particularly resistant to natural conditions by forming a strong stove structure.
The leaves are dark green and the veins are fluffy.
The position of the leaves is slightly upward. Exiles are meaty, crisp and weighty.
The bud and the first leaf are covered with six hairs.
Tuglali-10 Clone
Rize-Tuğlalı-Tarikler village is identified and the height of the area is 300 m.
Steel obtained from Anaç Ocak in 1967 was planted in the experimental plots in the Tea Institute.
It was decided that in 1977 the result of the sustained selection studies was clonality.
It has a strong stove structure and a large harvesting table
The leaves are long elliptical and stand upright according to the dala.
It is generally thin-branched and has good roofing.
The shoot structure is good.

Shoot Diameter
2.92mm 1.Background
19,7cm2
Exile Boyu
21.5cm 2. Leaf Area
23,5cm2

 

Shoot Diameter
2.92mm 1.Background
15.5 cm2
Exile Boyu
19 cm 2.Portable Area 19,7 cm2 Gündoğdu-3 Clone
The village of Rize-Gündoğdu-Dağınıksu is located in the middle district and the height is 150m.
The stones from the mine were erected in 1967 in the experimental parcels at the tea institute.
It has been decided that sustained selection studies have the character of being a resultant clone.
The cooking and development of the cooker is good. The leaves are wide elliptical and perpendicular to the dala. The leaves are soft in appearance.


Sunday-20 Clone
It is located at Rize-Pazar-Soguksu district and its height is 140m.
In 1967, steel taken from the rootstock was transferred to trial plots in the Tea Institute.
It was decided that in 1977 the result of the sustained selection studies was clonality.
The leaves are elongated and bent in a V-shape along the middle vein.
The branches are thin and the roof formation is good.

 

 

Shoot Diameter
3,01mm 1.Background
19,6cm2
Shoot Length 20cm 2. Leaf Area
29,6cm2
Coal-1 Clone
It is located at Rize-Merkez-Kömürcüler village and the height is 270 m.
In 1968, steels taken from the rootstock were planted in trial plots in the Tea Institute.
It was decided that in 1979, the result of the sustained selection studies had the character of being a clone.
Leaves are short length elliptical and the edges of the leaves are marked teeth.
The position of the leaves is higher than the dala.
This clone is relatively cold resistant.
Muradiye 10-Klone
It was discovered in the village of Rize-Salahra-Muradiye. The height of the zone is 300m.
In 1968, steels from rootstocks were planted in trial plots at the Tea Institute.
It was decided that in 1977 the result of the sustained selection studies was clonality.
This clone, known for its earliness, comes to harvest time 10-15 days ago compared to others.
The leaf arrangements are small and there is a tendency to curry.
The shoots are short and the branching ability is good.

 

Shaft Diameter 2.76mm 1. Cover Area 13.9cm2
Shoot Length 20cm 2. Depth Area 19,5cm2
Although the above-mentioned clone yields and quality differ from each other in general, clones have all been found to have good properties.
Decoration yield of clones is 1200-1400kg / min. lt; / RTI & gt; In Rize provincial tea production areas, averages of 721kg / min for ten years, 497.4kg / min for Artvin province, 642.2kg / min for Ordun province and Turkey average of 647kg / min. (Anan, 1987b, orphans, 1987)
The quality of polyphenols affecting quality is 22%. It does not exceed 17% in the general sense in other tea fields. These seven selected species were established as breeding grounds in our Institute's Center and Hayrat nursery.
Clone Name Center
Nursery
(m2) Hayrat
Nursery
(m2) Total
Area
(M2)
Derepazarı-7 550 1094 1644
Sunday -20 173 1460 1633
Tuglalı-10 312 1177 1489
Muradiye-10 1263 662 1925
Gündoğdu-3 425
425
Coal-1 175
175
Fener-3 189 2118 2307
TOTAL 3087 6511 9598 As stated in the table, Coal-1 and Gündoğdu-3 do not have a sufficient potty garden potential in terms of total area. The remaining clones did not occur at a satisfactory level in the tea cultivation development and breeding program. With the current situation, the total number of stoves to be used as breeding garden in the Institute is 9000. If we assess tea cultivation as a potential in the breeding and renewal project, it is not possible to receive vaccine pills every year from our existing breeding horticulture. Because the vaccine eyes of the vaccine eyes to mature well in order to receive the vaccine for the quarry that month in March of the efficiency trim and the second half of July after the maturation of the vaccine pills should be taken from the eye.
Therefore, each year as a breeder to be used as a technical kiln can not be done at least every 3 years to trim and care should be taken care.
According to these criteria, the production of annual vaccine pens from the existing breeding clones. The operations to be carried out in Çay Çeliği and the vaccine casting clones are as follows: - The clones to be picked up should be deeply pruned in March and vaccine shoots should be exported strongly. - After the second half of the month of July, enough pens reaching a sufficient size (70-90) cm and matured should be selected.
- Pen holders should not be taken.
-It should be picked up without too much delay, ie under the armpit eyes, without flower eyes.
- The vaccine pens from the clones should be cut from the leaf stalks and washed with tap water and disinfected with systemic fungicide captane.
- Immediate use of the pens should be done without waiting to be vaccinated. If not done immediately, it should be stored in polyethylene bags at 5Co.

 

 

 

Pruned Tea Clone in March
Maturing Tea Items in July
The amount of vaccine to be taken from the current clone teas in one year
1- Total tea clone / 3 9000 pieces / 3 = 3000 pieces clone
2- Number of vaccine calves that can be obtained from one clone teaspoon 10-20 pieces
Quantity of pruned clone cooker * amount of vaccine pellet in a single spot: 3000 * 17 = 51 000 vaccine pills
3 - Minimum number of vaccine eyes that a biologic tea clone can give
Number of vaccine beetles at one spot * Number of vaccine eyes in a pen: 17 * 6 = 90 vaccine eyes
4- Total amount of vaccine eyes in 3000 clone rices
Total pruning clone * vaccine eye at one end: 3000 * 90 = 270 000 vaccine eyes / year
As a result, there is an annual production capacity of between 200 and 250 thousand saplings.
All of the tea gardens available in our country have come from the seeds of hybrid tea. As a result of the genetic breakdowns generated by hybrid tea seeds, there are millions of different genotypes and phenotypes in the tea plantation fields, and different types and characteristics of tea cookers. Among these types, tea quarries were found to have good characteristics (efficient, high quality, cold, stasis, disease-resistant period of vegetation period) besides tea cookers with poor quality (poor quality, inefficient) in terms of characteristics reflecting general distribution.
In the ecological conditions of the region, the characteristics of each type of tea, which are distinguished from those of the tea types that have different characteristics and characteristics, are determined by determining which characteristics (efficient, good quality, cold tolerant, tolerant to the disease, disease tolerant period and long vegetation period) Then, taking place in our tea plantation areas in the present tea plantation areas, tea clones whose characteristics are determined instead of types with unknown characteristics and most of poor quality tea quarries will have great importance in the future in terms of Turkish tea and regional economy.
For this purpose tea nursery production in general means:
1- Generative production (with seed)
2 - Vegetative production (steel, dipping, vaccine, tissue culture) is in the form.
1-Generative Production (Seed)
Success in seed production depends primarily on the fact that the seed is mature and superior in quality. After the seeds have been collected, 1.5 cm. The seeds on the top of the leaves are removed and the hemispherical ones are removed and the remaining coarse seeds are left in the water-filled container for 24-48 hours for seeding, then the remaining seeds are removed from the water, and the remaining seeds are used for sowing. Tea seeds sprout in 20-25 C0 in 25-30 days.
The germinated tea fidelity is not a preferred replica since the fidelity of the fidelity of seeds from the fact that foreign fertilization is present due to its physiological structure reputation is of different type and quality and mostly because the desired types are not formed

 

Tea seeds
Sapling production from tea seeds
In today's modern agriculture, product standard is an important factor. In the same way, the main target in production and export is quality and standard. There is never a chance to market a product that varies in quality and quantity, especially in the foreign market.
2-Vegetative Production (Steel, Dipping, Vaccine, Tissue Culture)
In today's modern agriculture, production knowing the characteristics of the product has a great importance both in terms of quality and marketing of the product. For this purpose, modern tea cultivation has been adapted to the ecology of the region by way of selection and has the characteristics of high quality, This is an important method of vegetative production in the multiplication of tea varieties. After the adaptation experiments of high quality tea seedlings produced by this type of production, the economic efficiency in the region has declined from the economic efficiency in the region, the poor quality tea cookers renewal will be appropriate.
The tea plant has been produced by the method of vegetative propagation until now. With the development of reproduction techniques today, production with vaccination and tissue culture has come to the forefront.
Copying with steel: Selected clones for replicating with steel are subjected to a deep pruning in March. Pruned hearths are allowed to grow up freely. Bulls are definitely not collected from the quarries, and the developing exiles come to the steel taking stage until July and the first week of August.
However, since the desired strong root structure and distribution are not formed in the tea seedlings obtained by this production method, the seedlings of the seedlings, the cold, the weeds, the weeds, the weeds, and the weeds are removed from the initial planting stage, they are more susceptible.
This limits the adaptability of the tea seedlings produced with steel, and it does not grow at the desired time and development is weak. Therefore, it does not show a healthy development in different areas of our region.

 

 

 

Maturing tea pencil
Tea fermentation

 

 

 


Tea steel
Tea planting in the rooting environment of steel
Vaccine Replication
Vaccine production technique is generally confused as the most healthy form of production as it is in the reproduction of all agricultural products.

 

 

 


Removal of chip from tea seedlings
Tea seedlings with chip removed

 

 

 


Mounting of chopped eyeball removed from pen
Connecting with a vaccine link

 

Chopped eye vaccine shoot 1
Chopped eye vaccine shoot-2
The seeds of tea seeds constitute the basis of the production with the vaccine. These seedlings, obtained by grafting with the existing superior clones, have a high root in quality and quantity, resistant to natural conditions (stasis, cold, alien, diseases etc.) and other vegetative production forms (steel, dipping, tissue ash, etc.) will also be so high.
Reproduction with the tea vaccine is a promising way of production. However, because of the physiological structure of the tea especially in the first spring period, the absence of the desired efficiency in the application of the T eye vaccine due to pencil and crusts is limiting the application of this type of vaccination methods. For this reason, chickpea eye vaccination is applied more successfully in this period.
In the case of still eye vaccinations (July-August), both T-vaccine and Chip-vaccine can be easily applied. For this purpose, especially in the tea plantation areas in our region, it is necessary to renew the fallen tea cookers in a period of time from the efficiency yielding the economic efficiency age.
Tissue Culture Method
Tissue culture production is the most rapid replication mode compared to other production techniques. At the same time, a replica is produced in which a maximum number of seedlings are produced. However, in the reproduction of tissue culture, a special sterile laboratory environment and experienced trained personnel are needed. The Situation of Tea Plantation Houses
According to the tea plantation areas in our region, we have taken from Tea Agriculture Department as of the date of planting. If the tea fields are to be sorted from the oldest region to the youngest region, especially with respect to the planting dates until 1960,
Region 6, 42%
Region 4, 34%
Region 3 29%
Region 5 18%
Region 1 17%
Region 2 7%
We have seen significant differences between the regions, and even the fact that there are significant differences between the factories that make up the region.
As a result, in the renewal of our economic activities, the importance of business and the importance of the importance of business are emphasized and it is of vital importance both for our country and our region.